Participative, inter-actor urban improvement


1.- History, background and context

Social, political and institutional context in which the project is taking place:

The Santa Rosa de Lima neighborhood is located in the city of Santa Fe, and has a population of approximately 16,000 inhabitants. Given the increasing impoverishment of the structural poor (changarines, day workers, domestic workers, homeless, and others), and the increase in the new poor (unemployed, underemployed, self-employed, and others), Santa Rosa de Lima has a huge labor force without work, and this translates into a progressive deterioration in the quality of life (characterized by housing, clothing and food problems). In 1998, a census conducted by the Movimiento de Desocupados en Lucha demonstrated that 72% of the economically active population was without work with work understood here as productive activity sustained over time and with social benefits. Currently, this is one of the Santa Fe neighborhoods with the most transitory employment plans.

Santa Rosa de Lima has a rich history of neighborhood organization, however this did not protect it from the process of fragmentation that was generated by the implementation of the neoliberal model. Collective efforts and organized groups were gradually diluted to only spontaneous collective expressions and in particular, individual initiatives.
Currently, what we find in its neighborhood associations organizations that are formally representative is a reproduction of the formal democratic system. In other words, residents participate exclusively through their votes, to elect commissions and/or authorities. Consequently, these associations generally remain in the hands of political party leaders, who do not necessarily represent the communitys interests.

In addition, the local government, in the last years of its term, has attempted to generate the participation of civil society in developing a strategic diagnostic assessment of the city however, the invitation to participate is made selectively. Excluded are the many heterogeneous neighborhood institutions and organizations, which are daily reference points for the problems experienced by residents.
Espacio Interinstitucional is a collective made up of fifteen neighborhood institutions and organizations, including those both governmental and nongovernmental in nature, both secular and religious, and that work with different sectors of the population (children, youth, older adults, residents in general, unemployed, women, etc.).
Each one of these organizations was created to respond to specific needs experienced by sectors of the population. At the time when each of them was established, the institution-need relationship was univocal (for example, schooleducation; daycare centerchild care). In recent years, with the increase and intensification of economic and social problems experienced by the sectors with which these organizations are working, this relationship has been modified and the requests for assistance they receive have multiplied in terms of diversity and complexity. Today, they receive numerous requests generated by a complex situation of poverty and injustice that requires an equally complex analysis in order to seek complex responses together with others.
Based on profound knowledge of the neighborhood and a reading of the data from secondary sources (I.P.E.C.I.N.D.E.C., data from the Census conducted by the Movimiento de Desocupados en Lucha together with Canoa in 1998), we have been able to develop the following reading of UBN (Unsatisfied Basic Needs) indicators:
In Santa Rosa de Lima, an increase in the population is gradually leading to irregular settlements in the western section of the neighborhood, where families build precarious homes or ranchos. Many married children share their parents land, constituting one of the causes of overpopulation, with several families residing in the same parcel of land, in the case of the outlying areas of the neighborhood.
Twenty percent of the population is without potable water. Most families have only an outdoor faucet located on the outside of their homes. Infrastructure and public services are scarce. The lack of drainage provokes flooding during heavy rainfall, and then areas of stagnated water, leading to various health problems, and aggravated in turn by high water levels that provoke the overflowing of cesspools. The neighborhood has low-lying areas that were historically used as trash dumping ground, and currently act as natural reservoirs of rainwater, creating an environment characterized by multiple forms of pollution, as well as numerous smells, pests and rats.
Families are generally made up of numerous members, between six and ten persons. In terms of education, six of every ten families have children who attend school, and five of every ten families have children who eat at the school lunch program.
The higher the level of instruction, the lower the proportion: nine out of every ten persons interviewed know how to read and write; seven out of every ten persons interviewed have completed elementary school; and two out of every ten persons interviewed have completed junior high school.

Urban aspects
The urban evolution of Santa Rosa de Lima includes the progressive appropriation of land along its western border, near the central area of the city, consisting of land occupied in the low-lying areas along the Salado River. The neighborhood has a precise perimeter, clearly defined by a railroad line and the embankment along Circunvalacin Avenue. This gives it some particular characteristics: on the one hand, it separates it from the rest of the city, and on the other, it reinforces the sense of belonging that can be perceived among its inhabitants.
The oldest section is very densely populated, and the more recent sections are the results of a spontaneous operation in which land was occupied, as well as the gradual occupation of empty lots. Over the course of time, these areas are urbanized by the residents themselves, since they are the ones who fill in the lots, put in the streets, request services or hook up (illegally) to services in their efforts to improve their habitat. The farther to the west, the more evident are the more precarious individual settlements, and poverty is worse, with a lower level of habitability.

Primary problems
Urban expansion in Santa Rosa is the historic result of this process of spontaneous occupation of low-lying areas, characterized by the establishment of habitats in precarious and marginalized conditions. This situation is produced as a result of the lack of planning and the absence of an appropriate land and housing policy that involves all social actors in constructing urban environments. This situation is manifested precisely because of the following:

  • Low-lying, easily flooded land.
  • Environmental degradation: the primary problems are open-air areas where rainwater drains, as well as the existence of trash dumps and backyard animal raising within residential areas.
  • Precarious situation in relation to ownership of land plots.
  • Lack of continuity in urban layout, and an absence of prior planning in outlying areas.
  • Deficient infrastructure and services.
  • Overcrowding in housing and on land plots.
  • Lack of public areas.

Community organization:
The Santa Rosa de Lima neighborhood has a rich history of community organization to its credit. This is revealed in the presence of numerous social organizations and institutions. Nevertheless, the consequences of economic and social dynamics over the past thirty years have had an impact. We would identify the following characteristics to describe the situation in the neighborhood in a synthesized way:

  • A breakdown in the social fabric
  • A weakening in the exercising of democracy at the micro and macro levels
  • Low levels of participation
  • An increase in family and community violence
  • A notable emphasis on individual solutions
  • The absence of organizing for analysis and for making proposals.

At the same time, focusing on the neighborhoods identity and what sets them apart has made it possible to generate a work plan, and a forum for collectively building together, named Espacio Interinstitucional.

Originator of project:
The Canoa Civil Association has together with various neighborhood groups and some social organizations in the Santa Rosa de Lima neighborhood carried out various projects for improving habitat in a focalized manner. These specific projects generated strong links between the NGO and institutions and some neighbors, as well as generated the conditions for social participation. Together, these factors created a favorable context for considering a more complex and integral process.

Beginning date: 1997

Phases of the process:

Participative Diagnostic Assessment: the initial diagnostic assessment facilitated a process of identifying through meetings and workshops held together with neighborhood organizations and Santa Rosa residents the neighborhoods primary problems, and then analyzing them and developing proposals. Through a participative process, a hierarchy of the seven most critical problems experienced by the neighborhood was defined: lack of work; trash and rats; violence and drugs; open-air cesspools, ditches and drainage; lot areas, landfills, land; childrens health and nutrition; potable water supply; deteriorated streets and lack of planned streets.

Analysis of problemsDevelopment of proposals: this initial diagnostic assessment made it possible to initiate work with neighborhood groups and social organizations in different areas, especially focused on land, housing and trash, and based on workshops for analysis and development of proposals.

Community ManagementUrban Development Proposal: Understanding that addressing urban expansion in Santa Rosa de Lima is an opportunity for generating a comprehensive strategy with participation from all the actors involved (residents, neighborhood organizations and institutions, the government, service companies, etc.), a proposal was developed with the intention of generating dialogue, to discuss and reformulate proposals, while creating links between neighborhood and urban needs and interests.

The proposal establishes the possibility of occupying part of the low-lying lands and making comprehensive improvements in the neighborhood, transforming a deteriorated area into an improved area for the entire city to benefit from, through two operations:

  • The reordering of spontaneous settlements in the outlying areas, and regularizing public land in terms of ownership and urbanization (by modifying instruments for access to urban land, norms, ordinances, etc.), complemented by a program for improving existing housing (to be carried out with three lines of financing: prior savings, micro-loans, subsidies).
  • Filling in, leveling out and urbanizing low-lying lands, for high-priority occupation by neighborhood families, thus eliminating overcrowding and laying the groundwork for a program for new housing (adjusted to the socioeconomic characteristics of the target population).

The goal to be reached through community management work was inserting the Urban Development Proposal within the municipal agenda. To this end, there were efforts to request, generate and encourage various forums for presentation, discussion and reaching of agreements on the Urban Development Proposal with different actors, prioritizing government officials and technical professionals in the municipal government. The proposal was also presented to all the members of the municipal council.

At the same time, a policy was implemented for disseminating information in the communication media, to bring public attention to the proposal and to Espacio Interinstitucional. The Deliberating Council declared the proposal to be of municipal interest.

Community ManagementConsolidation of Actors in this Process: After the proposal was inserted into the municipal agenda, the management process was consolidated in different contexts, in a process characterized by working relationships with the local government (Departments of Planning, Water Resources, and Community Development) and with the various city council members, as well as presence in communication media, analysis of government projects and presentation of new ideas, etc. The participation by these different actors in different contexts (meetings, debates, reviews) generated agreements, negotiations, and new proposals and issues to be incorporated.

The Urban Development Proposal thus became a tool that made it possible to consolidate the Espacio Interinstitucional of Santa Rosa de Lima as a collective actor that makes proposals, and as a valid participant in dialogues on problems in the neighborhood.

Current situation:

Through Community Management work, Espacio Interinstitucional has been acknowledged by the local government as the only interlocutor in the process of negotiating and coming to an agreement on the Urban Development Proposal. The local government has also begun to study and evaluate the Proposal, for the purpose of defining certain aspects to be incorporated as future public works, and therefore, has also begun to seek resources to carry them out.

We are also working in the identification and consolidation of new actors in the management process, as well as the forming of groups for developing proposals by topics or problematic areas in the Proposal, for future management work.

2.- Objectives, strategies and scope

To sustain, consolidate and expand opportunities for participation and training in the development of strategies to be used in management work, in order to allow leaders in neighborhood organizations and institutions and residents of the city of Santa Fe to build democratic spaces with the power to find solutions to their needs in improving their habitat.

To work on the identification, incorporation, construction and consolidation of different actors in community management work.

Strategic criteria:
We have two key strategies in this work:
A) Participative planning for the urban development of the neighborhood: To think of urban development is to think of a concept of the city, to think of a city as a historic process, as something everyone works to build, as a territorial space where the social fabric is woven. In other words, the concept of urban is both physical and social at the same time. When we look at what is urban, we must think of all the social actors involved. And therefore, we cannot think of a city without taking into account its residents, its builders par excellence. Thinking about what is urban is an opportunity to choose the future; and thinking of development is an opportunity to incorporate a citys past and its history.
B) Community Management: This is a democratic process in which different actors (both public and private) are involved, and in which equally diverse procedures, relationships and methods are used. It is the work of creating forums for negotiating and reaching agreements among different actors around a common interest. It implies a process of collective discussion and choices among alternatives, and in this process the interests, contradictions and conflicts of the community come into play. At the same time, this process allows for interaction among diverse actors in their efforts to bring people together, work together, coordinate, mobilize, and develop and promote proposals.
As a result of the application of these strategies, Espacio Interinstitucional developed a concrete Urban Development Proposal for its neighborhood, and with this proposal as the starting point, it is bringing people together to discuss, negotiate and reach agreements with the different actors involved, and with the local government being the primary actor in this context.

Our strategic lines of action are the following:

  • To consolidate the relationship with the local government, generating spaces for negotiating and coming to agreements with the different actors involved.
  • To work so that Espacio Interinstitucional will be discovered and consolidated as a collective, political actor.
  • To work so that proposals for community management of habitat improvement will become social policy projects.
  • To articulate proposals for managing habitat improvement with proposals for managing the resolution of employment issues.
  • To work in forming and/or strengthening social organizations and neighborhood groups that focus on different issues involved in habitat.

Size of participating and beneficiary populations:

Participating Population
– Neighborhood groups interested in the various habitat issues: housing, land, infrastructure water, trash.
– Social organizations and institutions participating in Espacio Interinstitucional:
1. Casita de la Mujer: works with family violence issues; conducts workshops and other activities. A de facto organization.
2. Centro de Accin Familiar N 21: works with families; provides care for children up to four years of age (child-care service). A state-level entity.
3. CIAME: works with school-age children and adolescents, and also with mothers. Theater workshops, street music (murga), assistance with school. A state-level entity.
4. Escuela N 1298 Monseor Zaspe: a state-level entity.
5. Centro de Educacin Fsica N 52: works with children and adolescents from the neighborhood schools. A state-level entity.
6. Jardn de Infantes N 173: works with children up to five years of age. A state-level entity.
7. Movimiento de Desocupados en Lucha: brings together those in the neighborhood who are unemployed. A de facto organization.
8. Asociacin Vecinal Estrada: works with the population living in the northern section of the neighborhood. A nongovernmental organization.
9. Escuela N 809: a state-level entity.
10. Asociacin Pensionados Ley 5110: works with older adults in the neighborhood. School for adults, occupational therapy, exercises. A nongovernmental organization.
11. Escuela Particular N 1196: a state-level entity.
12. Critas Parroquial: works with elderly, children and women; coordinates with other institutions. A nongovernmental organization.
13. Escuela Tcnica N 2035: works with young people. A state-level entity.
14. Servicio de Educacin Popular: radio and library. A nongovernmental organization.
15. Canoa. A nongovernmental organization.
– Local, municipal government: at all levels executive, technical professionals, council members this is the government actor that is directly involved.

Beneficiary Population
– Direct Beneficiaries: families living in the West Section of the Santa Rosa de Lima neighborhood; social organizations and institutions that participate in Espacio Interinstitucional.
– Indirect Beneficiaries: all inhabitants of the Santa Rosa de Lima neighborhood.

Territorial scope
– Urban: Santa Rosa de Lima neighborhood, in the city of Santa Fe.

Innovative aspects
– socio-organizational: Building and consolidating an Espacio Interinstitucional that is representative and in which institutions, social organizations and neighborhood groups participate.
– methodological: the integration of two logics for working, with focuses on Citizenship and the creation of Local Power, based on working in Community Management of Proposals for Habitat Improvement.
From the general to the specific: Management of Proposals for Urban Development. In an inter-actor context: inter-institutional meetings, with neighborhood organizations and residents; meetings for coming to agreements on the proposal with the local government: executive branch, technical entities, Deliberative Councils. Participation in other inter-neighborhood, inter-actor contexts, for analyzing and working on various habitat issues.
From the specific to the general: we work with small groups of residents, and neighborhood organizations and institutions, by topics of interest. We are working on the first action within the Urban Development Proposal: the reordering of the spontaneous settlements in the outlying area.
This involves working with the following issues in particular:
land: state and municipal lands;
housing: improvements/new housing;
infrastructure: expanding and improving systems/drainage/streets;
other topics of interest to the institutions: health, jobs, violence/security.

– in management: Community Management is used as a tool for building Citizenship and Local Power, with an understanding of this work as a dynamic, democratic process in which different actors (both public and private) are involved, with equally diverse procedures, relationships and methods. This work is aimed at creating spaces for negotiating and reaching agreements with different actors around a common interest. It implies a process of collective discussion and choices among alternatives, and in this process the interests, contradictions and conflicts of the community come into play. At the same time, this process allows for interaction among diverse actors in their efforts to bring people together, work together, coordinate, mobilize, and develop and promote proposals.

3.- Actors involved and the roles they play

Beneficiary population: participates in the different workshops for developing and discussing proposals for management in the different areas: land, housing, infrastructure.
Social organizations and NGOs: participate in Espacio Interinstitucional, a collective actor that plays a key role in the community management of habitat improvement in Santa Rosa de Lima.
Local government: The steps in community management carried out with the local government, and together with the local government opportunities are generated for negotiating and coming to agreements regarding the Urban Development Proposal.
Universities: the Universidad Tecnolgica Nacional, based on a Mutual Cooperation Agreement with the Canoa Civil Association, plays the role of advisor in the initiative for producing the technological components for improving neighborhood infrastructure.
International cooperation: the Comit Catlico Francs has supported this project since its beginning.

4.- Components in the program or project (brief description of how they are coordinated)

Habitat elements included in the productive process
– land: most of the land in the western section of the neighborhood is public land corresponding to municipal and state governments, and the legal mechanism for regularizing the occupation of this land involves solutions that are inadequate for this sector of the population. What is proposed, therefore, is to generate proposals for community management, such as to search for collective alternatives for accessing urban land (modifications in legislation and norms).
– housing: the lack of housing policies that correspond to the socioeconomic reality of the population involved makes it impossible for these residents to participate in government housing plans and programs, and this means they are left with the task of finding solutions in their own hands. Residents not only take on the work of urbanizing their own neighborhoods, but they also build their own housing, and this means that housing is precarious, and largely inadequate for the number of family members, in terms of both space and functionality. The proposal incorporates two strategies in relation to the housing issues for this sector: the improvement of existing housing in the outlying area of the neighborhood, and the building of new housing, connected with a new development area.
– infrastructure and services: rainwater drainage is one of the main infrastructure problems in the neighborhood: the lack of maintenance and adequate, enclosed drainage systems generates problems (both environmental and health-related) in the functioning of the urban rainwater system. The potable water system just as the sewage system does not extend to the entire neighborhood, and where these services are in place, they are of poor quality. There are similar deficiencies in the provision of electricity, and residents frequently hook up (illegally) to electricity lines, making household connections even more precarious. In all these cases, the prices charged for these services do not correspond to the sectors ability to pay (unemployed, retired, single mothers), and the working group on Infrastructure and services (in which neighborhood groups participate) is carrying out efforts to bring attention to this problem and find a solution.
– facilities: The facilities in the neighborhood are judged to be satisfactory. They include assistance in acquiring medicines, as well as schools, cafeterias, child-care centers, etc., and cover the basic needs of neighborhood families. The main need addressed in the proposal is for recreational and/or sports facilities, since there are few public areas in Santa Rosa.

Social and cultural aspects
– organizational strengthening: The consolidation of a space for the articulation of the various neighborhood organizations and institutions, plus the incorporation of neighborhood groups is being enhanced, and social networks are being reconstructed. This creates a rupture with the prevailing logic of fragmentation.
– agreements with other actors: Espacio Interinstitucional participates as a social, political actor and generates opportunities for reaching agreements with other actors, primarily with the local government. It is also beginning to build relationships with other actors in other neighborhoods in the city of Santa Fe.
Consideration of cultural practices and characteristics: Two cultural practices differentiate this population from others: 1) First, it has an abundant history of neighborhood organization, and this facilitates the process of bringing people together around proposals for solidarity and collective work. There is potential lying just under the surface in this social context. 2) Secondly, this neighborhood expanded over time through spontaneous settlements in the western section, with inhabitants taking over low-lying lands, without producing a rupture in the continuity of the urban layout. With the passing of time, these areas have been urbanized by the inhabitants themselves, since they are the ones who have filled in the land these low-lying areas are generally not suitable for urbanization and who have put in the streets, requested services or hooked up with services, in their efforts to improve their living conditions.

Economic strengthening of participants and/or ecological sustainability / generation of productive areas (scale: neighborhood, housing unit or home)
– Coordination with the La Chirola project for improving precarious housing means that one of the points in the urban development proposal can be realized: improving existing housing, as well as the participation of beneficiaries in Espacio Interinstitucional (both through general management meetings as well as the meetings of the specific housing group).
– Generating income through productive habitat processes (employment generated, production of materials and components, etc.): One of the lines of action is to articulate proposals for managing habitat improvement with proposals for managing solutions to employment problems. With this as a starting point, various projects and/or activities are being defined (for example, a project for building pre-molded gutters, to improve neighborhood infrastructure).

Contribution to urban development
The urban proposal arises from the participative planning of the expansion of the Santa Rosa de Lima neighborhood, taking advantage of the possibilities offered by areas not in use, in order to resolve the neighborhoods problems. This work is based on coordinating the various actors involved in building the city, and is supported by its historic social process of appropriation and identity.
This planning process involves two strategies: improvement of the existing outlying area of the neighborhood (housing, infrastructure, public areas, etc.); and expansion of the neighborhood through a new development area that will make it possible to resolve the problem of overcrowding confronted by most neighborhood families.
Participation by citizens as a basic strategy for urban planning permits a different positioning in terms of making their habitat a reality, in relation to a sense of belonging, appropriation and meaning. In this way they become involved in the building of the city, as actors that make proposals, and engage in debate and community management.

Process and level of integration of the diverse components
This proposal suggests a comprehensive look at urban planning and the role to be played by citizens in the building of the city. Community management, both in general terms and in relation to proposals for specific projects such as land, housing, infrastructure and services requires a relationship among the actors involved government, service-providing companies, social organizations, neighborhood institutions, etc.

5.- Primary instruments used

– criteria and form of organization: Espacio Interinstitucional is a forum for collective construction in which different actors become involved and participate in community management, on the basis of the following criteria: we are all actors in community management, and we have different abilities, responsibilities and roles. Espacio Interinstitucional is organized around working groups that come together in plenary meetings. These working groups are focused on: general management, dissemination of information, and specific topics.
– education and training: As defined tasks are carried out, and based on reflection and analysis at different moments in time, certain topics of interest emerge. They are addressed through workshops, talks and meetings, thereby enhancing the education and training of the different actors involved.
– participative process: Community Management is a process that is essentially democratic and participative. The basic focuses are on negotiating and reaching agreements, and this takes place through meetings, interviews and discussion workshops, and by defining strategies and developing documents establishing political positioning, etc.
– information and communication: These are important aspects for sustaining a process of participation and community management. One of the working groups in Espacio Interinstitucional is focused on Dissemination of Information, and has defined its strategy at two levels: toward the interior of Espacio and the neighborhood; and toward the outside, with other actors in the city who work in community management, with the local government, with communication media.

– international assistance: supports logistical aspects of this process;
– public assistance: is considered in the Urban Development Proposal for carrying out public works.

Our work is carried out on the basis of the idea of Citizenship as a set of civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights that may be exercised by all. Citizenship is not a closed concept but rather, a practice that is dynamically constructed through a pluralist exercise that guarantees respect for diversity and differences. Each person has the right to have rights, and this means they are included in a social context with responsibilities and commitments in the public sphere. This means equality of rights, and the social, collective responsibility to safeguard those rights.
Exercising Citizenship in this way involves: an active role for all actors involved, in both reaching consensus and in expressing disagreement; being conscious of collective and individual rights and responsibilities; and participating at all times in a project and/or experience (design, programming, implementation, evaluation).
The National Constitution is considered to be the primary legal instrument. Thus, all the areas in which community management is carried out are rights that are not being exercised by some sector of the population.

6.- Achievements and main lessons learned

Primary impacts

  • in the life of participants/in the community: all the institutions, neighborhood organizations, groups of families and participating residents are revealed to be key actors in the future of their neighborhood.
  • in the environmental and urban context: the recuperation of a damaged outlying area, through intervention that is comprehensive in physical as well as social aspects in an urban context and participative based on the articulation of neighborhood organizations and institutions, together with government actors and individuals involved. Access to infrastructure and housing by an urban sector of the population that has been neglected. Environmental improvement based on a comprehensive solution to a situation characterized by trash dumps and open-air drainage. Creation of jobs through the articulation of public works to be carried out in the neighborhood and the labor force that is available in the neighborhood.
  • in public policies and norms: impact on public policies: development of proposals that directly affect the population involved (land ownership, differentiated costs for taxes and services, etc.), however also extending beyond the neighborhood level, with the possibility of becoming public policies at the city and state levels.
  • in democratic city administration: The incorporation of the Urban Development Proposal in the local governments agenda, having been declared as in the municipalitys interest by the citys Deliberative Council. Consolidation of Espacio Interinstitucional, which is gradually being recognized by other actors (public officials and political parties) in the city as a neighborhood reference point/interlocutor in relation to different issues.

Primary obstacles confronted

  • Historic predominance of charity-oriented political practices that continue to operate within the social imaginario, affecting political demands and practices in certain neighborhood institutions and actors.
  • Perception by neighborhood actors of the rupture and breaking apart of community links.
  • Limited motivation on the part of neighborhood groups to work on medium-term proposals and as a community. Given the urgency of problems experienced, there is a prevailing tendency toward individual solutions.
  • Lack of political will on the part of government actors, to accept and support these methods of working together (due to different conceptions of Public Administration).

Lessons that contribute experience, useful principles for reflecting upon and for other cases

  • Calling upon people to work together in a participative, collective effort requires a process of breaking with the logic of charity-oriented political practices that continue to operate in the social imaginario, affecting political demands and practices.
  • It is important to take into account the reality experienced by institutions, organizations and residents in the neighborhood, since frequently the urgency of everyday problems and demands hinder the progress made in community processes.
  • In the definition of strategies in community management, it is important to clearly interpret the level of political will on the part of government actors to accept and support these methods of working together (due to different conceptions of Public Administration).

7.- Key words

Popular habitat, community management, citizenship, local power, actors, social and political collective actor, local government, urban development.

8.- Sources

Project reports; documents developed by Espacio Interinstitucional; internal documents of the Canoa Civil Association; productions and materials from various activities carried out, including the participative diagnostic assessment, topic-based workshops; 1998 census report for the Santa Rosa de Lima neighborhood; report by topics, etc.

9.- Contacts

Asociacin Civil CANOA
San Jernimo 2830, Santa Fe
CP 3000 Santa Fe, Argentina
TEL: 0054-342-4524926
FAX: 0054-342-4561151