Indonesia has had a long history of improvement programmes in Kampungs. However, since 1979, the entire approach to Kampung Improvement became a larger nationwide effort covering over 200 cities across the country. A wide variety of international agencies has also supported this effort. The unique features of the Kampung improvement programme relate to greater community participation in the development efforts and coverage on a very wide scale, The emphasis is on provision of infrastructures services which help to integrate the Kampungs into regular developments in the city.
Actors in the GO-NGO Partnerships
The implementation of the KIP and the urban renewal as a post KIP activity in Surabaya were based on a partnership between the local government (Surabaya), an NGO (Yayasan Pemukiman Kita), University staff (Laboratory for Housing and Human Settlements-ITS), students (Arch. Dept.-ITS) and respective communities. The programme managed to achieve a higher quality of habitable environment in the most sustainable way. It also had a great impact on the development of local economy and income levels. The improvement of services also led to a positive contribution to health and environmental aspects. It proved that low income communities do have potential to support public intervention for mutual benefit over a long period of time.
On the resources side, the approach managed to achieve a wide coverage and better results although there was a limitation of resources, especially of finance. Also important to note is the capacity building of the community as a main feature of the programme. This made it possible for the community to use, operate and look after the (post) project results. Due to its pragmatic character, the principles of the experience are simple and easily replicable. It managed to stimulate other communities in Surabaya and other Indonesian towns and cities, and consciousness at the international level, towards the premise that more will be attained in a cost effective manner if partnership is fostered among actors.
An important aspect to be noted is that the GO-NGO partnership proved simple and, effective to deliver real results that directly benefit the low income people in a sustainable way. Consistency of development strategy (especially that benefits the poor) is maintained despite the changes of government officials, due to the support given by the university. Closer twin track communication is kept operational through the involvement of NGOs. Both the university and the NGOs not only enrich each other in doing their respective work, but help to spead the ideas intensively to the community as well as the government. The most important achievement of the GO-NGO arrangement is the constant recruitment of the future decision makers at different levels of the government in general.